Tag Archives: natural history

Four Fish by Paul Greenberg

Having read Cod, I was expecting Four Fish to follow in Mark Kurlansky’s tradition of the microhistory. Sure, maybe this one talks about four fish, I thought, but it’ll still be really meticulous, detailed, and contain almost more information than you’d ever want to know about the topic. Paul Greenberg surprised me by being both focused and able to bring me the big picture in a wonderfully cohesive and intelligent way. He doesn’t write his books like Kurlansky, but he doesn’t have to. He’s capable of producing something that’s just as subtly informative in his own way.

Since the book is called Four Fish, let’s take them one by one. The first is salmon. Greenberg discusses the drop in wild salmon populations, colored by a trip to Alaska to see a fishing operation that runs by the graces of the government. He also talks about the farmed salmon industry, which is where I got my first exposure to the amount of energy it takes to produce a pound of fish. Some fish are not very efficient at using the resources available to them, and quite a few of those are the first ones we’ve picked for domestication.

Greenberg next exposes us to sea bass, another fish people are trying to domesticate. He talks about the guidelines Francis Galton put forth for domestication (hardiness, an inborn liking for man, comfort-loving, be freely breeding animals, and easy to tend), and then discusses how sea bass, a favorite fish food for the Mediterranean peoples — and then much of the rest of the world — doesn’t fit any of these criteria. I found it interesting that researchers have put a lot of effort into fish that are so hard to tend. The process for sea bass started in Israel and then spread from there, and scientists have gotten remarkably far considering that they are such difficult fish.

Cod is where things get really interesting. First of all, Greenberg has the Mark Kurlansky come and taste cod from wild and farmed sources, which I thought was just great. Kurlansky actually picked out the wild cod as one of his favorites; pretty cool when someone can do that! Wild cod stock has, with the rest of these four fishes’ populations, declined wildly. What I found fascinating was that, while there are people trying to farm cod, there’s already some fish that are readily domesticated and require fewer resources — like tilapia (my mother’s favorite). I found that fascinating, and Greenberg talks about how the name recognition (or lack thereof) goes a long way toward whether a seafood is going to be accepted by the public.

The last fish is the tuna. Tuna is the top predator in its habitat, meaning that they are long-lived and take a long time to recover from population drop-offs. One interesting fact about tuna and its consumption in Japan that Greenberg shares with us is that the Japanese found it too fatty to eat before the American occupation, and only developed a taste for it during that time. Tuna also have a counterpart that are a better choice for domestication — the kahala — and eating these fish would allow tuna stocks to replenish.

I really liked how Greenberg wound his story about how we’re damaging fish stocks through some interesting interactions with scientists and fishermen. The best part, though, is that he found fish that fill the same niches as these staple ones — and do it better. For drawing in a vegetarian whose only caught seaweed (and been happy about it), I think Greenberg deserves some credit.

Rating: 4/5.

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Filed under 4/5, Book review, Favorable, Nonfiction

Eight Little Piggies by Stephen Jay Gould

I have to love Stephen Jay Gould. I like most popular science writers, like Carl Sagan, but how many title their books so that the library clerk comes back with a surprised look on his face? He said to me, “It’s a little thicker than I was expecting.” It was about the thickness I was expecting, and I enjoyed every page of it. Gould has a way of writing about evolutionary science that makes it approachable without dumbing it down.

Gould breaks the book down into several sections, so I’ll talk about each section in turn.

The Scale of Extinction

The book starts out with several essays on modern extinction. I thought he spoke particularly well about the dangers of human-introduced flora and fauna, giving the example of land snails on the south Pacific island of Moorea being killed off by African tree snails. I think it’s an important topic (what with living in Michigan with the fear of Asian carp coming into the Great Lakes), but I also like that he discussed the difference between the wiping out of a particular population as opposed to the extinction of a species. He discusses how unique populations don’t necessarily warrant protection against human encroachment, which I thought was interesting.

Odd Bits of Vertebrate Anatomy
This section contains the eponymous essay. It discusses the history of how vertebrate toes have been viewed — for a long time, it was thought that five was the original number … and then came along older fossils with animals with seven and eight toes. I love how this shows that “scientific certainty” has the potential to change on a dime because of new evidence and new thinkers.

Gould also uses this section to talk about errors Darwin made in his writings. He reminds us that judging Darwin by our own standards leads to knee-jerk reactions without taking into account the times, and he makes the argument that, while some of his thoughts on human behavior and development are racist by today’s standards, they were an attempt to make sense of the world through the nineteenth century’s lens. I liked that essay a lot; it reminded me that my grandchildren will think I have all sorts of old-fashioned and biased ideas, and not to judge too harshly until you see the entire picture.

Vox Populi

Gould breaks this up into two sections, but I’ll just treat it as one big group. Here he talks about the true spirit of scientific inquiry, giving the example of his father, who honestly tried to understand concepts that were blurred for him by the sniping back and forth of two authors of different books on the same topic. I thought it was provoking; I liked the fact that he made me think about whether I can respect and trust what someone says based on authority — indeed, it hammered home that logical fallacy for me.

I also loved his article on Bishop Ussher. This is the man who said that the world started in 4004 B.C. Gould explores how he got that date — and provides the reader with a genuine way to respect the man’s technique (though not the motivation or the end result).

Musings

This is also in a couple of sections. Gould talks about how fallible memory can be while exploring one of his own false memories, and he also discusses authenticity, which I found especially interesting. How odd it is when something is taken out of its proper context, or when a replica is put in its place. Gould gives the example of London Bridge, which was disassembled, shipped to America, and then reassembled for display. That’s not nearly as awesome as seeing it in its original setting, and I get what he’s saying. If we don’t have the right context for something, it won’t make sense, and, worse, it won’t invoke interest or curiosity. Artificiality deadens the imagination — and I think he’s right.

Human Nature

Gould here talks about the human brain and the nature of genius, with Mozart as the example. Mozart wrote amazing music at a tender age, but remained the same developmentally in every other category. I liked that he pointed this out; smart people (or talented people) are not supermen. They’re normal except in specific ways, and we all have our high points.

We also get to hear about the branching of primates. How sad it is to learn that we aren’t a successful part of that lineage — too few primates to view it any other way — but that does make us precious, I suppose.

Grand Patterns of Evolution

This was probably my favorite part of the book. There’s one section that talks about creatures that had hard parts that fossilized easily that were once thought to be individual species because of the lack of any connecting material. It took until someone found a rare fossil that preserved soft tissue that it was known to be one larger creature! I thought that was great, and also very much in the spirit of this book — science is fallible and science is changing. Neat!

Revising and Extending Darwin

Here, Gould discusses the changes evolutionary theory has gone through. I think this is important information — we all know about Darwin and his ideas, but how many of us know the amount of tweaking those ideas have gone through? Gould talks about his own idea of punctuated equilibrium (although I’m not sure he actually ever uses the term), which states that things change little during down times, and then explode during times of great catastrophe or environmental upheaval. He also discusses neoteny,which is one of the few things I remember from my psychology classes in college — mainly because I think it’s a clever little tool evolution developed.

Reversals — Fragments of a Book Not Written

One of my favorite concepts is in this section. At one point, a species of clam was thought extinct because there were no fossils found of it after a certain point in the strata. Then they were found in the 1800s, alive, in Australian waters. Here Gould drives home the point that absence of evidence is not evidence of absence. How could it be? You can’t prove a negative — you just have to hope that you’re going in the right direction, and if there are exceptions, that you can accept them.

Overall, I love Gould’s writing. It shines with a humor and feels researched without being tedious. I think anyone interested in natural history or the history of science would love Eight Little Piggies.

Rating: 5/5.

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Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes by Stephen Jay Gould

I’m going to make an embarrassing confession:  when I was a teenager, I attempted to read one of Stephen Jay Gould’s essay collections and didn’t quite make it through.  I think it was the baseball; something about it turned me off.  Now, twelve years later, I lament not having tried another of his books while younger.  I recently read The Mismeasure of Man and thought it was brilliant.  Now I have read an actual book of his shorter works, and I have thoroughly enjoyed the experience.

First off, Gould writes with an amazing balance of intellectual integrity and approachability.  His essays have a hint of humor, which he uses to help the reader through the material.  The topics, even though the book is thirty years old, can be complex for those who don’t have a basic understanding of natural science.  I found his treatment of subjects I knew were really clear.  This made my confidence in my comprehension of the new stuff he presented me with pretty high.

That said, the structure of the book is composed of sections that deal with different subjects: “Sensible Oddities”; “Personalities”; “Adaptation and Development”; “Teilhard and Piltdown”; “Science and Politics”; “Extinction”; and “A Zebra Trilogy”.  Let’s take them one by one.

“Sensible Oddities” contains essays about the strangeness of some aspects of nature.  Gould starts off by presenting us with animals like the anglerfish family, the males of which some species become permanent attachments of the females, becoming little more than a source of sperm with a heart.  He then discusses how these weird characteristics are beneficial adaptations to the species — anglerfish live in the deep and dark ocean, a swathe that is sparsely populated.  From the female’s perspective, an attached gentleman is most likely easier than having to look for him again when you become sexually receptive.  I love how he uses these examples to gently explain how evolution works.

“Personalities” is all about founders of scientific work.  This section will never go out of date, since it’s discussing people who worked in the past to build our current understanding of biology, geology, and related scientific fields.  Gould doesn’t talk about the expected giants in a fawning manner; rather, he discusses their good points and bad, and how they created a framework for the scientists of today to add to.

“Adaptation and Development” is a section that might be considered dated.  The essays here talk about how genes and their expression were debated at the time.  The idea of the selfish gene — and more moderate alternate theories — for example, as an explanation for the replicated sections of DNA that make up a great part of the genome.  I haven’t read extensively on the subject, but I think there are more developed theories now.  That’s not a fault of the book, though — just a fact of the world moving on while the printed word stays the same.

The most fascinating part of the book for me was “Teilhard and Piltdown”.  I knew the basic story of Piltdown Man, the half-human, half-ape skull conglomeration found in a gravel pit in England.  It’s a fraud — hate to burst anyone’s bubble.  I had no idea, however, about the men behind the lie, and I loved reading about Teilhard, the French-born Catholic clergyman who most likely was a willing part of the fleecing of the scientific community for forty years.  His story is an interesting one, somewhat sad and sympathetic at the same time.

I also really liked “Science and Politics”.  The fights detailed within about evolution and its teaching in schools — both historic in the Scopes trial and the then-current fight in Arkansas — are the same ones waged over the same topic today.  It feels like the scientific community is Sisyphus, getting so far and then having to run back down to catch the stone as it slides to the bottom down into Intelligent Design territory again.  No matter how things change, they seem to stay the same, at least as far as the struggle with creationists goes.

In “Extinction”, Gold discusses some theories on how extinction works.  He uses the size of candy bars in one essay to explore how they might “die out” at each increasing price point.  He also talks about the catastrophic theory for how the mass extinction in which the dinosaurs, among other creatures, died out.  That’s a little dated, too; the research is pretty firm on that one now, but Gould presents it as a likely but fairly new idea still in the early stages of development.

Lastly, “A Zebra Trilogy” uses the example of zebras to explore relative closeness of species to one another, how embryonic development can be used to answer questions about adult animals, and how sometimes science can work backwards, getting the idea first and fitting the data to that idea, and how this is detrimental to all of us.

Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes is a wonderful collection.  It’s on a subject I like a lot, and written by a phenomenal popular science author.  I enjoyed it immensely.  Now I just have to atone for my teenage sins and read more of his books.

Rating: 4.5/5.

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Filed under 4.5/5, Book review, Favorable, Nonfiction